June 2011
Bringing industry the latest technical insights and research on dairy nutrition, products and sustainability.
Featured Event

Dairy Plant Food Safety Workshop

July 26-27, 2011
Offices of Dairy Management Inc., Rosemont, Ill

Learn from industry experts about pathogen-control guidelines, principles, techniques and approaches for the dairy plant. Created by the Innovation Center for U.S. Dairy® and presented with the International Dairy Foods Association, the training will cover food safety fundamentals on sanitation, sanitary design, development of standard operating procedures and environmental monitoring techniques and case studies. Click for more information.

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Research from the Dairy Research Institute™

New Study Shows Self-Perceived Lactose Intolerance May Lead to Nutrient Shortcomings

In the June 2011 issue of The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, a study by Theresa Nicklas, et al., found individuals who perceive themselves to be lactose intolerant tend to avoid dairy foods, which may lead to nutrient shortcomings that can predispose them to negative health outcomes such as poor bone health, higher blood pressure and increased risk of colon cancer and diabetes.

The objective of this study was to assess the association between self-perceived lactose intolerance, calcium intake and select health outcomes that have been attributed to reduced intake of calcium and dairy foods in a nationally representative, multi-ethnic sample of adults. Of the 3,452 respondents, 12.3 percent reported self-perceived lactose intolerance. While gender and race played a factor, interestingly the results showed that age was not associated with self-perceived lactose intolerance.

In addition, individuals with self-perceived lactose intolerance reported having significantly lower calcium intake from dairy foods and significantly more cases of physician-diagnosed diabetes and hypertension. This indicates that a higher prevalence of diabetes and hypertension may be associated with lower dairy calcium intake in those with self-perceived lactose intolerance.

The findings also demonstrate that prevalence rates for lactose intolerance are considerably lower than previous estimates from lactose maldigestion studies. As such, self-perceived lactose intolerance may be a barrier to helping individuals consume the recommended servings of dairy foods each day and the important nutrients they provide. It is important to understand that fewer individuals experience lactose intolerance than previously thought and health professionals should focus on determining the source of symptoms. Health professionals should also provide guidance to aid consumers incorporate dairy foods into their diet to help ensure adequate nutrient intakes.

Article from The Dairy Report
Posted By Greg Miller on May 4, 2011

Nicklas TA, Qu H, Hughes SO, et al. Self-perceived lactose intolerance results in lower intakes of calcium and dairy foods and is associated with hypertension and diabetes in adults. Am J Clin Nutr. [Epub ahead of print]. [Epub ahead of print]. 2011 April 27.
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Research from the Dairy Research Institute™

Low-Fat Chocolate Milk Plays Positive Role in Aerobic Fitness and Performance, Muscle Recovery and Body Composition, Research Finds

New research continues to build on a growing body of science showing the benefits of low-fat chocolate milk following exercise. Today, presenters at the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) 58th Annual Meeting and 2nd World Congress on Exercise is Medicine® shared results from research indicating that drinking chocolate milk after a workout can boost improvements in aerobic fitness and body composition. These presentations come on the heels of another study just published in the May issue of Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, focusing on chocolate milk’s beneficial effect on cycling performance and signals for muscle recovery in endurance athletes.

“There continues to be increasing support showing that consumption of low-fat chocolate milk, which combines carbohydrate and protein following exercise, appears beneficial to muscle recovery and subsequent exercise performance,” said Gregory Miller, Ph.D., president of the Dairy Research Institute™ and executive vice president of the National Dairy Council®, which co-sponsored the research with the Milk Processor Education Program.
Press Release

Ferguson-Stegall L, McCleave EL, Ding Z, et al. Postexercise carbohydrate-protein supplementation improves subsequent exercise performance and intracellular signaling for protein synthesis. J Strength Cond Res. 2011;25(5):1210-1224.
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Review Finds Dairy Foods, Including Regular-Fat, Are Not Associated With Weight Gain in Children and Adults

Researchers in Australia conducted a systematic review of prospective cohort studies on the relationship between habitual dairy consumption and the risk of overweight and/or obesity in children (2 to 14 years old) and adults (18 to 75 years old).

While there was some indication of a protective effect of dairy food consumption on weight status in adults, the authors concluded that data from prospective observational studies evaluating the association between dairy intake and weight gain are inconsistent. Because of differences in design among the studies, it was not possible to conduct a meta-analysis on studies in either children or adults. The results of this review indicate that neither low- nor regular-fat dairy products adversely affect weight status in children and adults. In fact, data from some of the studies indicate that regular-fat dairy products may be beneficially associated with weight status.

Of the 19 studies examined:

  • Eight studies (three of 10 studies involving children and five of nine studies involving adults) showed a protective association against increasing weight gain.
  • One study reported a significant protective association among men who initially were overweight.
  • Seven studies reported no association.
  • One reported an increased risk of overweight and obesity among children.
  • Two reported both decreased and increased associations depending on the type of dairy food evaluated.

This review adds to the evidence that nutrient-rich dairy foods, including regular-fat dairy foods, do not adversely affect weight status in children and adults.

Louie JC, Flood VM, Hector DJ, Rangan AM, Gill TP. Dairy consumption and overweight and obesity: a systematic review of prospective cohort studies. Obes Rev. [Epub ahead of print]. 2011 April 27.
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Do Saturated Fats Matter When It Comes to Your Heart? The Great Fat Debate Explores This Issue

Controversy over whether reducing saturated fat in the diet matters to your heart and if it is the best prescription for health was the basis of a debate at a national meeting of dietitians. The debate was featured as the Member Showcase at the American Dietetic Association’s 93rd Food & Nutrition Conference & Expo in Boston in late 2010, with edited transcripts of the debate published in the May issue of the Journal of the American Dietetic Association.

In this debate, Alice Lichtenstein, DSc, and Lewis Kuller, M.D., DrPH, maintained that traditional low-fat guidance still has some value — while Walter Willett, M.D., DrPH, and Dariush Mozaffarian, M.D., DrPH, challenged the importance of total fat intake. An overview of the key issues in the debate can help dietetics practitioners understand and communicate the right health messages.

Selected highlights on the role of saturated fat in the diet:

  • Lichtenstein advocated a dietary pattern that maintains energy balance and displaces saturated and trans fat with unsaturated fat.
  • According to Kuller, dietary saturated fats increase blood cholesterol levels. LDL cholesterol levels should be kept below 100 milligrams to reduce heart disease risk. However, Mozaffarian disagreed with exclusively targeting LDL cholesterol because people respond differently to saturated fat and carbohydrate in their diets; he contended that other biomarkers of disease risk also are important.
  • Mozaffarian said that “modern nutritional evidence simply does not support a major effect of saturated fat on coronary heart disease risk.” He said if people eat plenty of vegetable oils, fruits, vegetables, fish and nuts, “it will be much less important what the saturated fat level is.”

One of the key takeaways from this debate is that there is room for saturated fats within the context of a healthy, calorie-balanced diet. An audio recording of the entire debate is available at www.adajournal.org.

Zelman K. The great fat debate: a closer look at the controversy — questioning the validity of age-old dietary guidance. J Am Diet Assoc. 2011;111(5):655-658.
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Willett WC. The great fat debate: total fat and health. J Am Diet Assoc. 2011;111(5):660-662.
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Kuller LH. The great fat debate: reducing cholesterol. J Am Diet Assoc. 2011;111(5):663-664.
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Mozaffarian D. The great fat debate: taking the focus off of saturated fat. J Am Diet Assoc. 2011;111(5):665-666.
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Lichtenstein AH. The great fat debate: the importance of message translation. 2011;111(5):667-670.
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Willett W. The great fat debate: Q&A. J Am Diet Assoc. 2011;111(5):672-675.
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Research from the Dairy Research Institute™

Mechanistic Study Demonstrates a Potential Role for Milk Fat in Improving Gut Immunity

Sickness or stress can cause the lining of the digestive tract to become more permeable to bacteria, leading to inflammation and disease. Previous studies have indicated that components of milk fat may protect against gut barrier dysfunction. A mechanistic study recently published in the Journal of Dairy Science found that a diet enriched with milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) successfully protected the digestive track of mice against bacterial-mediated stress better than corn oil.

The MFGM is a protein-lipid complex surrounding the fat globules in milk. While MFGM is present in all dairy products to some extent, the authors explained, churned buttermilk is especially enriched. Methods are now available for dairy processing operations to recover MFGM.

This project represents a new discovery and positive role for milk fat, as milk fat may help support normal digestive track health and function. These results warrant further investigation in human clinical trials.

Snow DR, Ward RD, Olsen A, Jimenez-Flores R, Hintze KJ. Membrane-rich milk fat diet provides protection against gastrointestinal leakiness in mice treated with lipopolysaccharide. J Dairy Sci. 94(5):2201-2212.
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Review Uncovers a Wealth of Bioactive Components in Milk With Potential Health Benefits

From reducing blood pressure to improving immune response and mood, components in milk are being mined by researchers for benefits that may improve human health. This comprehensive review by researchers in Ireland suggests that “almost every component of milk provides beneficial therapeutic effects.” The study reviews in detail the research on milk proteins and peptides, including those that modulate blood pressure, blood clotting and the immune system. It discusses at length the emerging research on oligosaccharides in milk and their potential effectiveness against infection and the inflammatory response.

The discussion about milk lipids is extensive. It encompasses the potential health benefits of the milk fat globule membrane, the relationship of milk phospholipids to cancer, immunity and the nervous system — as well as the health benefits of conjugated linoleic acid and omega-3 fatty acids (EPA and DHA) and how to increase their concentrations in milk.

The authors concluded, “The future for milk research therefore looks brighter than ever and no doubt will continue in this direction as scientists learn more about this complex, yet highly organized, food, which should serve as a model system for creating superior functional food products.” The authors further noted that consumers want more from food than just basic nutrition. With scientists now able to unlock many of the mysteries and mechanisms of how milk is good for you in ways previously not possible to comprehend, the health benefits of milk and milk’s components will continue to unfold.

Mills S, Ross RP, Hill C, Fitzgerald GF, Stanton C. Milk intelligence: Mining milk for bioactive substances associated with human health. Int Dairy J. 2011;21(6):377-401.
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Higher Sodium Intake Predicts Systolic Blood Pressure but Not Cardiovascular Related Mortality or Disease Risk

A prospective population-based study involving more than 3,600 European adults (20 years and older) without cardiovascular disease assessed whether sodium intake, as measured by 24-hour urinary sodium excretion, predicts blood pressure and health outcomes. Although there was a significant positive association between changes in urinary sodium excretion over time and systolic (not diastolic) blood pressure in the whole study population, this did not translate into a higher risk for cardiovascular complications. In fact, higher 24-hour urinary sodium excretion — the most accurate way to assess average salt intake in a population — was associated with less risk of dying from cardiovascular disease.

These data raise questions about the need for population-wide sodium reduction. The authors pointed out that this does not negate the benefit of reducing sodium intake in those with hypertension.

Stolarz-Skrzypek K, Kuznetsova T, Thijs L, et al. Fatal and nonfatal outcomes, incidence of hypertension, and blood pressure changes in relation to urinary sodium excretion. JAMA. 2011;305(17):1777-1785.
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Overweight Adolescents Retain More Calcium in Bone in Response to Increased Calcium Intake Than Normal-Weight Adolescents

An analysis of three-week calcium balance studies among 280 white, black, and Asian boys and girls (10 to 16 years old) found that calcium retention in bone was greater in response to higher calcium intake in adolescents with higher body mass index (BMI) than in those with lower BMI.

In general, obese adolescents have less total body bone mineral content and bone area and higher risk of fracture than their normal-weight counterparts. This analysis found the response to higher calcium intake was greater in overweight adolescents than in normal-weight adolescents. Many adolescents have lower-than-recommended calcium and dairy food intakes. Future studies are needed to determine whether an intervention to increase calcium intake, such as through increased consumption of milk and milk products, would decrease the fracture rate among overweight adolescents.

Hill KM, Braun MM, Egan KA, et al. Obesity augments calcium-induced increases in skeletal calcium retention in adolescents. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. [Epub ahead of print]. 2011 April 13.
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Higher Bone Mineral Density of the Spine Is Associated With Less Calcified Artery Plaque Among African-American Adults With Type 2 Diabetes

Previous research suggests that bone metabolism and the mineralization of atherosclerotic plaque are related processes. Researchers tested that hypothesis among 753 African-Americans with type 2 diabetes from 664 families. They measured calcified plaque in the coronary and carotid arteries and the infra-renal abdominal aorta using computed tomography (CT) scans. They measured bone mineral density of the thoracic (middle) spine and lumbar (lower) spine using quantitative CT scans. Higher bone mineral density of the thoracic spine was significantly associated with less calcification in coronary and carotid arteries and aorta, while higher bone mineral density of the lumbar spine was associated with less calcification in the coronary artery and aorta. This relationship was independent of conventional risk factors for cardiovascular disease such as age, sex, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, LDL cholesterol, C-reactive protein, hemoglobin A1c, smoking or hormone replacement therapy.

The authors said they do not know for sure how bone mineralization and the development of calcified artery plaque are linked in this African-American population – or if they occur simultaneously simply due to aging. One explanation may be that liberation of calcium from the skeleton during accelerated bone turnover resulting from a low calcium intake may contribute to mineral deposition in blood vessels. This explanation is plausible, since in general African-Americans have a lower average calcium intake compared with Caucasians. Further studies are needed to uncover the biologic factors that may link bone health with susceptibility to calcified arteries.

Divers J, Register TC, Langefeld CD, et al. Relationships between calcified atherosclerotic plaque and bone mineral density in African-Americans with type 2 diabetes. J Bone Miner Res. [Epub ahead of print]. 2011 March 24.
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The Years Surrounding Adolescent Growth Are Critical for Building Bone

The principal cause of osteoporotic fractures is reduced bone mass — from age-related bone loss and/or the failure to achieve optimal peak bone mass during growth. Data recently published in the Journal of Bone and Mineral Research by Canadian researchers substantiated the importance of the years surrounding puberty for bone mineral accrual. Results of this longitudinal study provide strong evidence that, depending on skeletal site, peak bone mass occurs by the late teens or early 20s.

Although other researchers have estimated the timing of peak bone mass, this study is unique in that it estimates the age at which peak bone mass has been achieved in boys and girls by using longitudinal data to understand the tempo and timing of bone mineral accrual at different bone sites over an age range from 8 to 30 years. The data were aligned by biological age (years from peak height velocity) rather than chronological age to control for sexual maturity.

Specifically:
  • Total body bone mineral content reached a plateau, on average, at 18 and 20 years of age in girls and boys, respectively — or six years after peak height velocity was reached.
  • Bone mineral content of the lumbar spine and femoral neck (portion of hip) reached a plateau earlier, at four years and two years, respectively, after peak height velocity.

According to the researchers, 33 to 46 percent of the bone mineral content these youths would have as young adults was accrued in the years immediately surrounding the pubertal growth spurt. This study lends further support to the recommendation that children and adolescents (age 9 and above) consume at least three servings of low-fat or fat-free dairy foods daily to support optimal bone health.

Baxter-Jones AD, Faulkner RA, Forwood M, Mirwald RL, Bailey DA. Bone mineral accrual from 8 to 30 years of age: An estimation of peak bone mass. J Bone Miner Res. [Epub ahead of print]. 2011 April 21.
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A DASH-Type Meal Pattern That Includes Dairy Foods May Benefit Diabetic Youth

Previous studies have found that the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) eating pattern (rich in fruits, vegetables and low-fat/fat-free dairy foods) lowers blood pressure. Adherence to a DASH-type diet also has been associated with several other aspects of cardiovascular health. An investigation of more than 2,000 youth (10 to 22 years old) with either type 1 or type 2 diabetes explores whether adherence to a DASH-type diet is associated with cardiovascular risk factors such as blood lipids, lipoproteins, measures of body fatness and glycemic control.

Among youth with type 1 diabetes, greater adherence to the DASH diet was significantly associated with a lower LDL/HDL-cholesterol ratio and hemoglobin A1c. The LDL/HDL-cholesterol ratio is an important indicator of heart disease risk, while blood A1c is a measure of average glucose control over the past two to three months. In youth with type 2 diabetes, higher DASH adherence was significantly associated with a more favorable LDL particle density and lower body mass index.

The authors concluded that the DASH dietary pattern “may prove beneficial in the prevention and management of cardiovascular risk” in youth with diabetes. However, they said in their experience, the diets of youth with diabetes fall “markedly short” of current recommendations. In this study, overall adherence to the DASH diet was low.

The DASH eating plan is among the plans for healthy eating recommended by the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA). Similar to the USDA base pattern in the DGA, the DASH eating plan includes approximately three servings of low-fat and fat-free dairy foods daily, which is more than is currently consumed by the average American.

Liese AD, Bortsov A, Gunther ALB, et al. Association of DASH diet with cardiovascular risk factors in youth with diabetes mellitus: the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study. Circulation. 2011;123(13):1410-1417.
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European Consumers Generally Prefer to See Data About Vitamins and Minerals on Food Labels

Results of a quantitative survey conducted among almost 5,000 adult consumers in six European countries found that respondents perceive nutritional value as important when selecting foods. Across all socio-demographic groups, respondents placed significantly higher importance on qualifying nutrients (i.e., vitamins, minerals and fiber) that have a positive influence on health rather than on disqualifying nutrients (i.e., calories, fat, saturated fat, sugar and sodium) that may have a negative impact. In fact, the highest importance score was for vitamins and minerals.

As might be expected, the study also found that consumers who were on calorie-restricted, lower-fat, lower-sugar and/or lower-salt diets placed significantly higher importance on those nutrients when compared to consumers not on a diet. Also, consumers who are more health-conscious attached greater importance to all nutrients when making food choices. Consumers with a high degree of health consciousness attached the most importance to vitamins and minerals.

These findings are consistent with the goals of the Nutrient Rich Foods Coalition™ in the U.S., of which the National Dairy Council® is a founding member. The coalition supported Dr. Adam Drewnowski’s development of the Nutrient Rich Foods (NRF) Index to help educate people about how to build higher-quality diets by choosing nutrient-dense foods first. The NRF Index defines the nutrient density of food by taking into account a food’s complete nutrient package.

Hoefkens C, Verbeke W, Can Camp J. European consumers’ perceived importance of qualifying and disqualifying nutrients in food choices. Food Quality and Preference. [Epub ahead of print]. 2011 March 21.
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Higher Protein Intake Improves Appetite Control in Overweight/Obese Men During Weight Loss

A study recently published in Obesity investigated the independent and combined effects of increased dietary protein (25 percent of calories vs. 14 percent of calories) and greater eating frequency (six vs. three eating occasions per day) on perceived appetite and satiety during weight loss in 27 overweight/obese men on a 12-week, energy-restricted diet. Results showed that a higher protein intake during weight loss “improved daily satiety and evening appetite control, whereas greater eating frequency had relatively no impact on these outcomes.”

Americans are increasingly interested in higher-protein diets to help promote weight loss and satiety. Milk, yogurt and most cheeses are a good source of high-quality protein and can help achieve a higher-protein diet. In addition, the dairy group contributes other essential nutrients to the American diet, including calcium, vitamin D, phosphorus and potassium. This study adds to a growing body of research on the role of higher protein-diets in curbing hunger.

Leidy HJ, Tang M, Armstrong CL, Martin CB, Campbell WW. The effects of consuming frequent, higher protein meals on appetite and satiety during weight loss in overweight/obese men. Obesity. 2011;19(4):818-824.
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Study Finds Kefir Improves the Effectiveness of Drug Treatment for H. Pylori Infection

Emerging research has identified the potential for probiotics combined with drug therapy to help eradicate Helicobacter pylori infection. H. pylori infection is a common cause of stomach ulcers, and if untreated can lead to stomach cancer. A double-blind, single-center study in Turkey, among 82 patients with H. pylori infection, was the first to report that the addition of kefir to triple drug therapy increased eradication rates and decreased side effects from the medication. Kefir is a probiotic mixture prepared by culturing milk with kefir grains containing lactobacilli, lactic streptococci, yeast and acetic acid bacteria.

The patients were randomly assigned to receive either 1 cup (250 mL) of kefir or milk (placebo) twice a day along with a 14-day course of three different drugs (lansoprazole, amoxicillin and clarithromycin) called triple therapy. The eradication rates were significantly higher in the triple therapy and kefir group than in the placebo group (78.2 vs. 50 percent, respectively). Common side effects of the treatment regimen, such as diarrhea, headache, nausea and abdominal pain, were less prevalent and milder in the triple therapy and kefir group. The authors said adding kefir to this regimen may have important implications for patient compliance with treatment.

This research presents a novel use of a probiotic-containing dairy food. Further research is needed in a larger and more diverse group of people to confirm these benefits and to identify the mechanism involved in reducing medication side effects.

Bekar O, Yilmaz Y, Gulten M. Kefir improves the efficacy and tolerability of triple therapy in eradicating Helicobacter pylori. J Medicinal Food. 2011;14(4):344-347.
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Research from the Dairy Research Institute™

Better Methods Needed for Accurately Determining the Amount of Probiotics in Cheese

Dairy products have long been considered a favorite delivery vehicle for various probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB). While yogurt and milk provide options for delivery, recently cheese has been considered to be a favorable system for probiotics, as it has greater survival, longer shelf life and is a popular food in consumers’ diets. Determining the ability of hard cheeses to deliver probiotics depends on survival of the probiotic cultures among a mixed population of existing cheese bacteria. This determination is made more difficult by the growth of non-starter lactic acid bacteria (NSLAB), closely related to the probiotic cultures, during the cheese ripening process.

Researchers at Weber State University and the Western Dairy Center at Utah State University conducted studies on ways to selectively determine the number of probiotics and the number of cheese bacteria to study the survival of probiotic bacteria in full- and low-fat cheese. The research indicated that by initially screening starter cultures, probiotic bacteria and NSLAB strains before cheesemaking, better data can be obtained on the identity of individual bacterial isolates. Through this process, indication will be given as to probiotic adjunct survival vs. NSLAB growth.

Oberg CJ, Moyes LV, Domek MJ, Brothersen C, McMahon DJ. Survival of probiotic adjunct cultures in cheese and challenges in their enumeration using selective media. J Dairy Sci. 2011;94(5):2220-2230.
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Antihypertensive Activity Limited in Model Hispanic Cheese

Recent research found Queso Fresco produced in Mexico has higher levels of small proteins that might have antihypertensive activity than U.S. laboratory-produced cheeses of the same variety. Upward of 30 percent of the adult population have hypertension, or high blood pressure, which is a chronic condition that may lead to stroke or coronary heart disease. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is a key component in the human body that can increase blood pressure. Limiting the action of the ACE enzyme could help decrease blood pressure. Small protein fragments, peptides, from casein in other cheeses have been shown to inhibit ACE. This is the first-of-its-kind research addressing compounds from Queso Fresco that might inhibit ACE.

Queso Fresco is one of the most popular and fastest-growing Hispanic cheeses in the U.S. The cheese is consumed within weeks of manufacturing. Many Queso Fresco cheeses manufactured in Mexico contain non-starter lactic acid bacteria from the milk and from the cheese plant that are included in the cheese-making process. In the U.S. model system, Queso Fresco was made from pasteurized milk in a laboratory environment. The objective of the research was to assess the antihypertensive activity in protein extracts from cheeses made in Mexico as well as model cheeses made in the U.S. The U.S. cheeses were developed to mimic the taste and flavor of the Mexican cheeses. The research represents a step in evaluating which cheeses may have an impact on components of blood pressure control and why.

Research results from the USDA Agriculture Research Service’s Eastern Regional Research Center indicate that model cheeses displayed decreased ACE activity but only after eight weeks of aging — too long for this fresh cheese to be acceptable to consumers. Mexican samples did display ACE inhibitory action in the in vitro assay system after minimal aging. This implies that inhibitory compounds are generated by the natural non-starter lactic acid bacteria that are introduced from the environment during cheese making in Mexico. While this research provides evidence that some Queso Fresco cheeses may contain ACE inhibitory compounds, further research will be needed to fully characterize those peptides responsible for this activity.

Paul M, Van Hekken DL. Short communication: Assessing antihypertensive activity in native and model Queso Fresco cheeses. J Dairy Sci. 2011;94(5):2280-2284.
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Higher Moisture Ingredient Improves Functional Properties of Extruded Whey Protein Isolates

High temperature and high shear force are used to produce whey protein products with unique physical and chemical characteristics during extrusion. Even with the advances in extrusion technology, it still is difficult to predict changes in structure, texture and functionality of whey protein products as there is little knowledge of the impact of various process control parameters, including extrusion temperature, moisture content of the feed and shearing speed.

Whey protein, a byproduct of cheesemaking, accounts for approximately 20 percent of total milk protein. Of the various whey component products, whey protein isolate (WPI) has one of the highest economic values due to its high protein content. To make WPI, the proteins are isolated from whey and then dried by spray drying or extrusion. During the spray-drying process, the liquid feed (whey protein) is exposed to hot gas, and evaporation takes place, resulting in dried particles. Extrusion technology provides an alternative method to produce unique, texturized forms of protein that can be used to enrich foods and non-food products.

Researchers at the Dairy and Functional Foods Research Unit of the USDA’s Agricultural Research Services have conducted tests to better understand the effect of extrusion moisture content on protein solubility, distribution, structures, functionality and overall quality. The research concluded that at a constant extrusion temperature, higher moisture content feed could provide limited protection from losses in water solubility, quality and molecular structure during the extrusion process. This research will further support the use of WPI as an increasingly valuable ingredient.

Qi PX, Onwulata CI. Physical properties, molecular structures, and protein quality of texturized whey protein isolate: Effect of extrusion moisture content. J Dairy Sci. 2011;94(5):2231-2244.
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Crystallization Process Controls Creaminess and Quality in Ice Cream

An ice cream manufacturer’s goal is to produce a creamy-tasting product with a smooth mouth feel, no matter the fat content. Understanding the process by which ice cream freezes and the changes to crystals is critical for manufacturers, as the ability to produce smaller crystals could provide manufacturers a means to make a reduced-fat ice cream with an extended shelf life that is as creamy as full-fat versions.

Researchers at the University of Wisconsin examined the freezing process of ice cream, the formulation of ice crystals and the impact on the crystals when warming occurs. The size and shape of ice crystals change upon leaving the initial freezing process, growing in size due to the hardening of the ice cream. Ice crystals in the end product have a disklike shape that will produce smooth, creamy ice cream if they are less than 50µm in size. In the initial freezing process, ice crystals can grow in a dendritic (tree- and branch-like) form due to supercooling. Questions surround when the crystals become disklike in shape and what parameters impact the size and shape of the final crystals.

As dendrites become more branched, a concentrated ice cream mix is trapped between the branches and results in more of an ice slush layer than solid ice. The colder the temperature, the faster the dendrites will grow, causing finer structures, which results in smaller crystals in the final product. As heating occurs, the dendrites melt at branch points into disk-shaped crystals, but these disk crystals will be larger if more melting and refreezing occurs, creating a sandy texture. Understanding how dendrites react to different freezing temperatures, warming rates and recrystallization into disk-shaped crystals can help manufacturers better control the size of the crystals and thus, the overall quality of the ice cream.

Cook KL, Hartel RW. Effect of freezing temperature and warming rate on dendrite break-up when freezing ice cream mix. Int Dairy J. 2011;21(6):447-453.
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Sustainability
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Water Footprint of Dairy Production Needs to Consider Local Factors

Concerns about global climate change and the ability to feed a growing population are causing many individuals to request lifecycle-based sustainability data on products, companies and industries. In addition to carbon footprinting, water footprinting is emerging as an important indicator for the agriculture and food sectors.

The science of water footprinting is less well-developed, and a recent study revealed the importance of using lifecycle-based methodology that takes into account local factors where operations occur. These factors include water stress and water source — specifically, green water (natural rainfall) or blue water (water withdrawn from surface and groundwater resources). These considerations lead to a more meaningful measure of water use.

Using life cycle assessment-based methodology that takes these local factors into account, a recent study reported the consumptive water footprint of dairy products from South Gippsland, one of Australia’s major dairy regions. The normalized water footprint of whole milk was 14.4 liter/kilogram of total milk solids in whole milk (at farm gate), and 15.8 liter/kilogram of total milk solids in skim milk powder (delivered to the export destination). The water footprint was small because the farms in the study were located in a region of Australia with plentiful water and an extremely low Water Stress Index.

The results demonstrate that dairy products can be produced with minimal impact to local freshwater scarcity. However, due to the variability in water footprint between systems and products, further research that explores opportunities to reduce the burden on freshwater systems is recommended. “Such an approach is likely to be more effective in addressing global water scarcity and food security issues compared with simplistic recommendations to avoid livestock products altogether,” the authors noted.

Through the Innovation Center for U.S. Dairy™, this type of water footprint study for U.S. dairy products is underway. Visit www.USDairy.com/Sustainability for more information.

Ridoutt BG, Williams SR, Baud S, Fraval S, Marks N. The water footprint of dairy products: case study involving skim milk powder. J Dairy Sci. 2011;93(11):5114-5117.
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Other Publications

Healthy eating behaviors and the cognitive environment are positively associated in low-income households with young children

Pieper JR, Whaley SE. Appetite. [Epub ahead of print]. 2011 April 8.
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The 2011 Dietary Reference Intakes for calcium and vitamin D: What dietetics practitioners need to know

Ross AC, Manson JE, Abrams SA, et al. J Am Diet Assoc. 2011;111(4):524-527.
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Issues and misconceptions about obesity

Flatt JP. Obesity. 2011;19(4):676-686.
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Oral desensitization as a useful treatment in 2-year-old children with cow’s milk allergy

Martorell A, De la Hoz B, Ibáñez MD, et al. Clin Exper Allergy. [Epub ahead of print]. 2011 April 11.
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Prebiotic oligosaccharides reduce proinflammatory cytokines in intestinal caco-2 cells via activation of PPAR {gamma} and peptidoglycan recognition protein 3

Zenhom M, Hyder A, de Vrese M, Heller KJ, Roeder T, Schrezenmeir J. J Nutr. [Epub ahead of print]. 2011 March 30.
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Vitamin D and prevention of cancer — ready for prime time?

Manson JE, Mayne ST, Clinton SK. N Engl J Med. 2011;364(15):1385-1387.
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Secular trends in the incidence of hip and other osteoporotic fractures

Cooper C, Cole ZA, Holroyd CR, et al. Osteoporos Int 2011;22(5):1277-1288.
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Nutrition economics — characterising the economic and health impact of nutrition

Lenoir-Wijnkoop I, Dapoigny M, Dubois D, et al. Brit J Nutr. 2011;105(1):157-166.
Abstract
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Urinary tract stone occurrence in the Women’s Health Initiative randomized clinical trial of calcium and vitamin D supplements

Wallace RB, Wactawski-Wende J, O’Sullivan MJ, et al. Am J Clin Nutr. [Epub ahead of print]. 2011 April 27.
Abstract
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Calcium intake in the United States from dietary and supplemental sources across adult age groups: New estimates from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2006

Mangano KM, Walsh SJ, Insogna KL, Kenny AM, Kerstetter JE. J Am Diet Assoc. 2011;111(5):687-695.
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Editorial: Methodologic approaches influence assessment of calcium intakes

Krebs-Smith SM, Kirkpatrick SI. J Am Diet Assoc. 2011;111(5):683-686.
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Impact of Breed on the Cheesemaking Potential of Milk; Volume vs Content

Wisconsin Center for Dairy Research Dairy Pipeline. 2011: Volume 23, Number 1
Newsletter
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Curd Clinic – Sanitation Standard Operating Procedures

Wisconsin Center for Dairy Research Dairy Pipeline. 2011: Volume 23, Number 1
Newsletter
Table of Contents

Effect of storage temperature on quality of light and full-fat ice cream

Buyck JR, Baer RJ, Choi J. J Dairy Sci. 2011;94(5):2213-2219
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Purification and identification of lactoperoxidase in milk basic proteins as an inhibitor of osteoclastogenesis

Morita Y, Ono A, Serizawa A, et al. J Dairy Sci. 2011;94(5):2270-2279.
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Monitoring amino acids, organic acids, and ripening changes in Cheddar cheese using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy

Subramanian A, Alvarez VB, Harper WJ, Rodriguez-Saona LE. Int Dairy J. 2011;21(6):434-440.
Abstract
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Screening for antimicrobial resistance genes and virulence factors via genome sequencing

Bennedsen M, Stuer-Lauridsen B, Danielsen M, Johansen E. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011;77(8):2785-2787.
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Key Dates

Research from the Dairy Research Institute™ being presented at key industry meetings

 

American Dairy Science Association and the American Society of Animal Science Joint Annual Meeting
July 10-14, 2011
New Orleans Morial Convention Center, New Orleans, La.


Symposia

Technological Advancements in the Reduction of Pathogens and Spoilage Organisms in Milk

Environmental Impact of Beef and Dairy Systems

Innovations in Dairy Processing Unit Operations

Milk Proteins and Peptides: Bioactivity and Digestion

Symposia Information
Meeting information

Dairy Plant Food Safety Workshop

July 26-27, 2011
Offices of Dairy Management Inc., Rosemont, Ill
Meeting Information

For additional upcoming events, click here.
For past newsletter issues, click here.
Dairy Research Institute publishes its own scientific insights in this newsletter as well as research and other items of interest of other organizations. Methodologies, conclusions or findings of third party studies do not necessarily reflect the views or carry the endorsement of Dairy Research Institute.